Survey of Miglustat Therapeutic Effects on Neurological and Systemic Symptoms of Infantile Type of Sandhoff and Taysachs Diseases
GM2 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive subtype of Lysosomal Storage Diseases in which, Hexosaminidase A-B deficiency is caused by HEXA-B gene. HEXA deficiency is seen in Tay sachs and HEXB deficiency causes Sandhoff disease. Infantile forms of Sandhoff and Tay sachs are often lethal and management of the patients is supportive including nutrition, hydration, seizure control and management of respiratory problems. Recent studies have suggested new methods of treatment, such as enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation and substrate reduction therapy. The first drug used in SRT was Miglustat. It was introduced in 1980 as an anti HIV agent and later, it was registered under the trademark of Zavesca in 2009 and was used in treatment of Gaucher and Niemann-Pick disease. Zavesca passes blood brain barrier, so causes reduction of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids CNS neurons and relief of neurologic manifestations. Improvements were seen in oculomotor function, cognition, swallowing, motor disturbances and psychological problems after treatment with Zavesca. No effect has been proved on visceral involvement. Weight loss during first year of treatment, diarrhea and dyspepsia are seen as side effects. Studies on SRT in lysosomal storage disease have different results. Some show improvements in manifestations of Gausche, Sandhoff & Tay sachs disease, while others show no valuable benefit for this method of treatment. Finding an effective treatment for these chronic diseases can improve quality of life for the patients and their families, and also reduce costs for healthcare services. The controversy persists and more studies are needed for judgment. So this study is done to evaluate the effect of Miglustat therapy in Sandhoff and Tay sachs disease, and is believed to help for further studies in this field.
• Clinically and enzymatically suspected infants of Sandhoff (SD)/Tay-Sachs (TSD) diseases followed confirmation by molecular study.