Antibiotic prophyLaxis Versus Placebo in Infants Diagnosed With Hydronephrosis Antenatally
This study focuses on the relationship between prophylaxis antibiotics and frequency of urinary tract infection in children diagnosed with antenatal hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis is the most common fetal abnormality occurring in 1-5% of all pregnancies. Currently, with the widespread accessibility of antenatal ultrasound across cities in Ontario, the detection of hydronephrosis has become even more common. As a result, thousands of infants with hydronephrosis have been seen and managed by pediatricians, pediatric nephrologists, pediatric urologists, and family physicians. The investigators need to determine if antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in reducing the number of urinary tract infections in this population.
• Infants with AHN (one to seven months of age) confirmed postnatally with renal-bladder ultrasound and/or a dilated ureter ≥ 7mm
• SFU grade III and IV AHN (high grade hydronephrosis)
• Patients without grades II to V VUR determined by voiding cystogram (includes UPJO-like and primary megaureter (hydroureteronephrosis) only);
• Parent or legal guardian able to give free and informed consent