Preoperative evaluation and risk management.

Journal: Clinics In Colon And Rectal Surgery

All colorectal operations carry significant associated risk. To facilitate the best outcomes it is essential to perform a comprehensive evaluation of patient risk preoperatively. Once risk factors are identified the appropriate steps must be taken to minimize their effects. The evaluation of the patient can be broken down by organ systems such as cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and gastrointestinal. Additionally, one can assess whether the patient is at risk for infection, hyperglycemia, malnutrition, venous thromboembolism, and anemia. There are many preemptive steps that can be taken to improve patient outcomes in all of these categories.