Adenosine-induced pulmonary vein ectopy as a predictor of recurrent atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation.

Journal: Circulation. Arrhythmia And Electrophysiology

Background: Adenosine can unmask dormant pulmonary vein (PV) conduction after PV isolation. Adenosine can also induce ectopy in electrically silent PVs after isolation, possibly via activation of autonomic triggers. We sought to identify the implications of adenosine-induced PV ectopy for atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after PV isolation.

Results: A total of 152 patients (age, 60±11 years; 63% paroxysmal AF) undergoing PV isolation for AF were studied. After each PV was isolated, adenosine was administered and the presence of adenosine-induced PV reconnection and PV ectopy were recorded. Dormant conduction was targeted with additional ablation. Adenosine-induced PV ectopy was seen in 45 (30%) patients, and dormant conduction was seen in 44 (29%) patients. After a median follow-up of 374 days, 48 (32%) patients had recurrent AF after a single ablation procedure. Rates of freedom from AF among patients with adenosine-induced PV ectopy were significantly lower than patients without adenosine-induced PV ectopy (63% versus 76% at 1 year; log rank, 0.014). Rates of freedom from AF among patients with dormant conduction were also lower than patients without dormant conduction (64% versus 76% at 1 year; log rank, 0.062). With multivariate analysis, adenosine-induced PV ectopy was found to be the only independent predictor of AF after PV isolation (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.40; P=0.032).

Conclusions: Adenosine-induced PV ectopy is a predictor of recurrent AF after PV isolation and may be a marker of increased susceptibility to autonomic triggers of AF.

Jim Cheung, Frank Lin, James Ip, Seth Bender, Faisal Siddiqi, Christopher Liu, George Thomas, Steven Markowitz, Bruce Lerman