Clinical development of gene- and cell-based therapies: overview of the European landscape.

Journal: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development

In the last decade, many clinical trials with gene- and cell-based therapies were performed and increasing interest in the development was established by (national) authorities, academic developers, and commercial companies. However, until now only eight products have received marketing authorization (MA) approval. In this study, a comprehensive overview of the clinical development of gene- and cell-based therapies in Europe is presented, with a strong focus on product-technical aspects. Public data regarding clinical trials with gene- and cell-based therapies, obtained from the European Union (EU) clinical trial database (EudraCT) between 2004 and 2014 were analyzed, including product-technical variables as potential determinants affecting development. 198 unique gene and cell therapy products were identified, which were studied in 278 clinical trials, mostly in phase 1/2 trials and with cell therapies as major group. Furthermore, most products were manufactured from autologous starting material mostly manufactured from stem cells. The majority of the trials were sponsored by academia, whereas phase 3 trials mostly by large companies. Academia dominated early-stage development by mainly using bone marrow derived products and stem cells. Conversely, commercial sponsors were more actively pursuing in vivo gene therapy medicinal product development, and cell therapies derived from differentiated tissue in later-stage development.