Periprosthetic Fluid Analysis in the Diagnosis of Breast Implant Infections Using Cell Count and Differential.
Background: One of the most devastating complications following implant-based breast reconstruction is periprosthetic infection. Making a prompt and accurate diagnosis has been a challenge as plastic surgeons are limited by nonspecific systemic markers of infection, clinical examination findings, or imaging modalities.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of periprosthetic fluid using cell count and differential as an aid in the diagnosis of infection.
Methods: This is a retrospective chart review. The authors selected patients who underwent breast reconstruction and had periprosthetic fluid analysis during the previous 10 years based on CPT 89051 (cell count and differential, body fluid). Only patients with clinical concerns for infection were included (cellulitis, fever, etc.); all others were excluded.
Results: A total of 54 samples were included in the study. Twenty-seven samples were associated with periprosthetic breast infections based on positive cultures or intraoperative findings consistent with infection. On fluid analysis, those with infection had a significantly higher neutrophil percentage (84.2% vs 19.3%, P < 0.0001). A cutoff value of 77% neutrophils had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 93% in diagnosing infection. Delayed treatment in patients with high neutrophil percentage was associated with poorer outcomes. Lastly, there was a strong correlation between higher neutrophil percentage and increased rate of capsular contracture.
Conclusions: Early and accurate diagnosis of periprosthetic breast infections can lead to earlier treatment and potentially improved the outcomes. Aspiration and analysis of periprosthetic fluid for neutrophil percentage can be a reliable method to guide clinical decision making. Methods: null