Use of Pharmacologic Prophylaxis Against Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Injured Children.
Despite a practice management guideline and risk prediction model for venous thromboembolism (VTE), pediatric-specific evidence on pharmacologic prophylaxis is lacking. In a retrospective study, we characterized receipt of prophylaxis and explored its effectiveness in hospitalized injured patients below 18 years old using data from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program. Concordance of receipt of prophylaxis with guideline and predicted risk of VTE was estimated using κ statistic. Effectiveness was explored using cohorts matched based on the risk prediction model. A total of 11,165 (6.2%) of 180,932 patients received prophylaxis. Those who received prophylaxis were more commonly post-pubertal and more severely injured. Receipt of prophylaxis was fairly concordant with the guideline (κ=0.32) and predicted risk of VTE (κ=0.29). Receipt of prophylaxis was associated with higher rates of VTE likely due to confounding by indication. Low molecular weight heparin seemed more effective against VTE than unfractionated heparin (incidence rate ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.36, 0.75), but less effective when received ≥72 hours after admission to the hospital. We showed that hospitalized injured children did not commonly receive prophylaxis. We also showed that prophylaxis may be effective in hospitalized injured children, but it needs to be proven definitively in a randomized clinical trial.