Essential role of cardiac computed tomography for surgical decision making in children with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and single ventricle.
Background: Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a major risk factor in infants with single ventricle (SV). Exact definition of TAPVC anatomy is crucial for surgical planning.
Objective: To evaluate the role of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in this setting.
Methods: Retrospective review of 13 infants who underwent TAPVC repair associated with SV from May 2016 to October 2021. Anatomy, incidence, and mechanisms of pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO) were described. Cardiac CT diagnostic yield was compared to echocardiography (echo).
Results: Of 13 infants, median age and weight were 24 days (range 2-303 days) and 3.2 (range 2.6-9.1) kg, 8 (62%) were male, 4 (31%) premature, and 11 (85%) had heterotaxy syndrome. All infants had pre- and postoperative echo; 13 had preoperative and 8 (62%) had postoperative cardiac CT. Type of TAPVC: six (46%) supracardiac, two (15%) intracardiac, one (8%) infracardiac, and four (31%) mixed, with pulmonary veins draining in >1 confluence in nine (69%). PVO was present in 6/13 (46%) preoperatively and 5/13 (31%) postoperatively. Mechanisms of PVO: 9/11 (82%) stenosis, 1/9 (9%) membrane formation, and 1/9 (9%) external compression. The sensitivity to diagnose PVO was 45.5% for echo and 100% for cardiac CT, the specificity was 100% for both. No discrepancy was found between cardiac CT and intraoperative findings, but echo had a complete preoperative diagnosis in 1/13 (8%) (p < .00001, Fisher exact test).
Conclusions: Cardiac CT is essential to evaluate pre- and postoperative TAPVC in SV for surgical decision making and long term follow up.