RPNI, TMR, and Reset Neurectomy/Relocation Nerve Grafting after Nerve Transection in Headache Surgery.
: In the context of headache surgery, greater occipital nerve (GON) transection is performed when the nerve appears severely damaged, if symptoms are recurrent or persistent, and when neuromas are excised. Lesser occipital nerve (LON) excision is commonly performed during the primary decompression surgery. Advanced techniques to address the proximal nerve stump after nerve transection such as regenerative peripheral nerve interface (RPNI), targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR), relocation nerve grafting, and reset neurectomy have been shown to improve chronic pain and neuroma formation. These techniques have not been described in the head and neck region. This article describes RPNI, TMR, and reset neurectomy with GON autograft relocation to prevent chronic pain and neuroma formation after GON/LON transection. RPNI and TMR are feasible options in patients undergoing GON/LON transection. Further, relocation nerve grafting with GON autograft relocation is a method that is beneficial in patients with diffuse nerve injury requiring proximal nerve division. Advanced nerve reconstruction techniques should be considered in headache surgery following GON/LON transection.