Ebstein's Anomaly: From Fetus to Adult-Literature Review and Pathway for Patient Care.

Journal: Pediatric Cardiology
Published:
Abstract

Ebstein's anomaly, first described in 1866 by Dr William Ebstein, accounts for 0.3-0.5% of congenital heart defects and represents 40% of congenital tricuspid valve abnormalities. Ebstein's anomaly affects the development of the tricuspid valve with widely varying morphology and, therefore, clinical presentation. Associated congenital cardiac lesions tend to be found more often in younger patients and may even be the reason for presentation. Presentation can vary from the most extreme form in fetal life, to asymptomatic diagnosis late in adult life. The most symptomatic patients need intensive care support in the neonatal period. This article summarizes and analyzes the literature on Ebstein's anomaly and provides a framework for the investigation, management, and follow-up of these patients, whether they present via fetal detection or late in adult life. For each age group, the clinical presentation, required diagnostic investigations, natural history, and management are described. The surgical options available for patients with Ebstein's anomaly are detailed and analyzed, starting from the initial mono-leaflet repairs to the most recent cone repair and its modifications. The review also assesses the effects of pregnancy on the Ebstein's circulation, and vice versa, the effects of Ebstein's on pregnancy outcomes. Finally, two attached appendices are provided for a structured echocardiogram protocol and key information useful for comprehensive Multi-Disciplinary Team discussion.

Authors
Tristan K Ramcharan, Donna Goff, Christopher Greenleaf, Suhair Shebani, Jorge Salazar, Antonio Corno
Relevant Conditions

Ebstein's Anomaly

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