Case report of atypical Lemierre's Syndrome associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum infection without internal or external jugular venous thrombophlebitis.
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobe that is commensal to the human oral cavity. It is usually a component of periodontal plaque that is emerging as a pathogen and quickly attracting attention of the medical and research communities. It has been even discovered in bronchoalveolar lavage of some patients with lung cancer. Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is characterized as septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, which usually begins with oropharyngeal infection that worsens and leads to inflammation of the wall of the jugular vein. This is the hallmark of the disease. However, in this case, there was no thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. There is one other case presentation where it was diagnosed without the internal jugular vein involvement. Most sequelae involve infected thrombus of the vein, soft tissue inflammation, persistent bacteremia, and septic emboli, often leading to metastatic infections. Interestingly enough, in the age of SARS-COV-2, LS has also been mistaken for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We present a previously healthy 20-year-old female college student who was transferred from her local hospital to Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital (BMSCH) at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital for suspected LS with loculated pleural effusions and necrotizing pneumonia with lung abscess secondary to Fusobacterium nucleatum, systemic and emphysematous osteomyelitis possibly secondary to septic emboli, thrombocytopenia, and palatine tonsil and thyroid abscesses.