Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma: Updated Systematic Review and Analysis of Treatment Strategies.

Journal: Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery

Background: Although guidelines have been published on treatment of breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), there has been no comprehensive analysis of BIA-ALCL treatment variation based on the available literature. The authors sought to assess current treatment strategies of BIA-ALCL relative to current guidelines.

Methods: Database searches were conducted in June of 2020. Included articles were case reports and case series with patient-level data. Collected variables included clinicopathologic features, implant characteristics, diagnostic tests, ALCL characteristics, treatment, and details of follow-up and outcome. Treatment data from before and after 2017 were compared with National Cancer Center Network guidelines.

Results: A total of 89 publications were included and 178 cases of BIA-ALCL were identified. Most patients presented with seroma ( n = 114, 70.4 percent), followed by a mass ( n = 14, 8.6 percent), or both ( n = 23, 14.2 percent). Treatment included en bloc capsulectomy of the affected implant in 122 out of 126 cases with treatment details provided (96.8 percent). Radiation therapy was given in 38 cases (30.2 percent) and chemotherapy was given in 71 cases (56.3 percent). Practitioners used less chemotherapy for local disease after treatment guideline publication in 2017 ( p < 0.001), whereas treatment for advanced disease remained unchanged ( p = 0.3). There were 10 recurrences and eight fatalities attributable to BIA-ALCL, which were associated with advanced presentation (29 versus 2.1 percent; OR, 19.4; 95 percent CI, 3.9 to 96.3; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: BIA-ALCL remains a morbid but treatable condition. Current guidelines focus treatment for local disease and reduce nonsurgical interventions with radiation or chemotherapy. Patients presenting with advanced BIA-ALCL experience higher rates of recurrence and mortality.

Hani Naga, Joseph Mellia, Marten Basta, Martin Morris, Adrienne Christopher, Frank Campbell, Katie Sommers, Howard Levinson, Jonas Nelson, John Fischer