The outbreak of monkeypox 2022: An overview.

Journal: Annals Of Medicine And Surgery (2012)
Published:
Abstract

On May 6, 2022 an outbreak of monkeypox (MPX) was confirmed in the United Kingdom, originating from a British resident who had travelled to Nigeria. As of May 21, 2022, 92 cases have been confirmed worldwide, from 13 countries where monkeypox virus (MPXV) is not endemic. Reported cases thus far have mainly but not exclusively been identified among gay and bisexual men aged 20-50. MPXV is a viral zoonosis transmitted to humans via contacting or eating an infected animal, and direct connect with natural host's blood and body fluids. In addition to contacting with a patient's respiratory droplets, lesions, body fluids and polluted personal objects. Symptoms including shivers, headaches, fainting, backaches, and myodynia do not have any specific characteristics making it difficult to establish a proper diagnosis. Nevertheless, lymphatic hyperplasia, one of the most common symptoms of monkeypox, can be useful for diagnosing the disease. Clinical symptoms help establish the suspicion of monkeypox. However, in the absence of confirmed diagnostic tests it is very difficult to verify the disease and determine its cause based on clinical symptoms alone. There are numerous methods for detecting MPX, involving genetic, phenotypic, immunological methods, and electron microscopy. These tests require modern equipment and expert hands, which may not be available in developing countries where this disease is prevalent. Currently, there is no definite treatment for MPX. CDC recommends administering the smallpox vaccine within 4 days of exposure which may prevent the disease from happening, and within 2 weeks to reduce symptoms severity. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.

Authors
Munawar Hraib, Sarah Jouni, Mhd Albitar, Sara Alaidi, Zuheir Alshehabi
Relevant Conditions

Smallpox, Monkeypox, Fainting, Headache