Impact of the affordable care act's medicaid expansion on presentation stage and perioperative outcomes of colorectal cancer.

Journal: Journal Of Surgical Oncology

Objective: Medicaid expansion has improved healthcare coverage and preventive health service use. To what extent this has resulted in earlier stage colorectal cancer diagnoses and impacted perioperative outcomes is unclear.

Methods: This was a retrospective difference-in-difference study using the National Cancer Database on adults (40-64) with Medicaid or no insurance, diagnosed with colorectal adenocarcinomas before (2010-2013) and after (2015-2018) expansion. The primary outcome was early-stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage 0-1) diagnosis. The secondary outcomes were rate of local excision, emergency surgery, postoperative length of stay, rates of minimally invasive surgery, postoperative mortality, and overall survival (OS).

Results: Medicaid expansion was associated with an increase in early-stage diagnoses for patients with colorectal cancers (odds ratio [OR]: 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.43), an increase in local excision (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.13-1.69), and a decreased rate of emergent surgery (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75-0.97) and 90-day mortality (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.97). Additionally, patients in expansion states postexpansion had an improved 5-year OS (hazard ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.83-0.94).

Conclusions: Insurance coverage expansion may be particularly important for optimizing stage of diagnosis, subsequent survival, and perioperative outcomes for socioeconomically vulnerable patients.

Cimarron Sharon, Yun Song, Richard Straker, Nicholas Kelly, Adrienne Shannon, Rachel Kelz, Najjia Mahmoud, Nicole Saur, John Miura, Giorgos Karakousis
Relevant Conditions

Colorectal Cancer