Mosaicism in Tumor Suppressor Gene Syndromes: Prevalence, Diagnostic Strategies, and Transmission Risk.

Journal: Annual Review Of Genomics And Human Genetics

A mosaic state arises when pathogenic variants are acquired in certain cell lineages during postzygotic development, and mosaic individuals may present with a generalized or localized phenotype. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding mosaicism for eight common tumor suppressor genes-NF1, NF2, TSC1, TSC2, PTEN, VHL, RB1, and TP53-and their related genetic syndromes/entities. We compare and discuss approaches for comprehensive diagnostic genetic testing, the spectrum of variant allele frequency, and disease severity. We also review affected individuals who have no mutation identified after conventional genetic analysis, as well as genotype-phenotype correlations and transmission risk for each tumor suppressor gene in full heterozygous and mosaic patients. This review provides new insight into similarities as well as marked differences regarding the appreciation of mosaicism in these tumor suppressor syndromes.

Jillian Chen, David Miller, Laura Schmidt, David Malkin, Bruce Korf, Charis Eng, David Kwiatkowski, Krinio Giannikou
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