Late-onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD): case reports and epidemiology of ETFDH gene mutations.
Summary: This case report describes two related patients with MADD that were treated using riboflavin.
Conclusion: The report states that future patients should be screened for EFTDH mutations and lipid-storage myopathy in order to identify if they will respond to riboflavin.
Background: Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a riboflavin-responsive lipid-storage myopathy caused by mutations in the EFTA, EFTB or ETFDH genes. We report a Chinese family of Southern Min origin with two affected siblings with late-onset riboflavin-responsive MADD due to a homozygous c.250G > A EFTDH mutation and review the genetic epidemiology of the c.250G > A mutation.
Methods: Both siblings presented with exercise-induced myalgia, progressive proximal muscle weakness and high levels of serum muscle enzymes and were initially diagnosed as polymyositis after a muscle biopsy. A repeat biopsy in one sibling subsequently showed features of lipid storage myopathy and genetic analysis identified a homozygous mutation (c.250G > A) in the ETFDH gene in both siblings and carriage of the same mutation by both parents. Glucocorticoid therapy led to improvement in muscle enzyme levels, but little change in muscle symptoms, and only after treatment with riboflavin was there marked improvement in exercise tolerance and muscle strength. The frequency and geographic distribution of the c.250G > A mutation were determined from a literature search for all previously reported cases of MADD with documented mutations. Our study found the c.250G > A mutation is the most common EFTDH mutation in riboflavin-responsive MADD (RR-MADD) and is most prevalent in China and South-East Asia where its epidemiology correlates with the distribution and migration patterns of the southern Min population in Southern China and neighbouring countries.
Conclusions: Mutations in ETFDH should be screened for in individuals with lipid-storage myopathy to identify patients who are responsive to riboflavin. The c.250G > A mutation should be suspected particularly in individuals of southern Min Chinese background.