Modifiable factors affecting renal preservation in type I glycogen storage disease after liver transplantation: a single-center propensity-match cohort study.

Journal: Orphanet Journal Of Rare Diseases
Treatment Used: Liver Transplantation (LT)
Number of Patients: 20
MediFind Summary

Summary: This study investigated the outcome of liver transplantation (LT) in the treatment of pediatric patients with type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I).

Conclusion: In pediatric patients with type I glycogen storage disease, treatment with liver transplantation preserved kidney function.


Background and

Aims: Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) is an autosomal recessive disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in limited production of glucose and excessive glycogen storage in the liver and kidneys. These patients are characterized by life-threatening hypoglycemia, metabolic derangements, hepatomegaly, chronic kidney disease, and failure to thrive. Liver transplantation (LT) has been performed for poor metabolic control and delayed growth. However, renal outcome was diverse in pediatric GSD patients after LT. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of renal function in pediatric GSD-I patients after living donor LT (LDLT), and to identify modifiable variables that potentially permits LT to confer native renal preservation.

Methods: The study included eight GSD-Ia and one GSD-Ib children with a median age of 9.0 (range 4.2-15.7) years at the time of LT. Using propensity score matching, 20 children with biliary atresia (BA) receiving LT were selected as the control group by matching for age, sex, pre-operative serum creatinine (SCr) and pediatric end-stage liver disease (PELD) score. Renal function was evaluated based on the SCr, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), microalbuminuria, and morphological changes in the kidneys. Comparability in long-term renal outcome in terms of anatomic and functional parameters will help to identify pre-LT factors of GSD-I that affect renal prognosis.

Results: The clinical and biochemical characteristics of the GSD and BA groups were similar, including immunosuppressive regimens and duration of follow-up (median 15 years) after LT. Overall, renal function, including eGFR and microalbuminuria was comparable in the GSD-I and BA groups (median eGFR: 111 vs. 123 ml/min/1.73m2, P = 0.268; median urine microalbuminuria to creatinine ratio: 16.0 vs. 7.2 mg/g, P = 0.099, respectively) after LT. However, in the subgroups of the GSD cohort, patients starting cornstarch therapy at an older age (≥ 6-year-old) before transplantation demonstrated a worse renal outcome in terms of eGFR change over years (P < 0.001). In addition, the enlarged kidney in GSD-I returned to within normal range after LT.

Conclusions: Post-LT renal function was well-preserved in most GSD-I patients. Early initiation of cornstarch therapy before preschool age, followed by LT, achieved a good renal prognosis.

Yi-chia Chan, Kai-min Liu, Chao-long Chen, Aldwin Ong, Chih-che Lin, Chee-chien Yong, Pei-chun Tsai, Liang-suei Lu, Jer-yuarn Wu

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