Objective: To report a rare case of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB in a pediatric patient, with emphasis on the description of the clinical manifestations and the early diagnosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 14-year-old male patient, who presented regression of neuropsychomotor development since his three years and six months old, with speech loss and frequent falls, evolving with behavioral changes, with agitation and aggressiveness. Although being diagnosed with autism, there was no response to the established treatment; he was subsequently submitted to metabolic investigation, which lead to the diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB. COMMENTS: Identifying a metabolic disorder requires connecting multiple signs and symptoms, as well as eliminating other apparent causes. MPS IIIB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly in the early stages and in the absence of a family history of the disease.