Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease discovered in the 21st century. This disease has been reported in several Asian countries, including China, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Until 2019, SFTS cases have been reported in 25 provinces in China, and most of them were rural residents from mountains and hilly regions. Most SFTS cases were sporadic but geographically concentrated, mainly in Henan, Shandong, Anhui, Hubei, Liaoning, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu provinces. SFTSV infection was transmitted predominantly by a tick bite and potentially through close contact with the patient's blood or body fluids. Fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were common initial manifestations, and multiple organ failure or even death could occur in severe cases. The reported cases of SFTS have been gradually increasing, and the case fatality rate has remained at a high level, posing a severe threat to public health in China. This paper reviewed the epidemiological features, risk factors for disease transmission, and the clinical characteristics of SFTS to gain further knowledge of the disease, guide the prevention and management, and help reduce the case fatality rate.