Actinomycosis is a long-term (chronic) bacterial infection that commonly affects the face and neck.
Actinomycosis is usually caused by the bacterium called Actinomyces israelii. This is a common organism found in the nose and throat. It normally does not cause disease.
Because of the bacteria's normal location in the nose and throat, actinomycosis most commonly affects the face and neck. The infection can sometimes occur in the chest (pulmonary actinomycosis), abdomen, pelvis, or other areas of the body. The infection is not contagious. This means it does not spread to other people.
Symptoms occur when the bacteria enter the tissues of the face after trauma, surgery, or infection. Common triggers include dental abscess or oral surgery. The infection can also affect certain women who have had an intrauterine device (IUD) to prevent pregnancy.
Once in the tissue, the bacteria cause an abscess, producing a hard, red to reddish-purple lump, often on the jaw, from which comes the condition's common name, "lumpy jaw."
Eventually, the abscess breaks through the skin surface to produce a draining sinus tract.
Symptoms may include any of the following:
Treatment of actinomycosis usually requires antibiotics for several months to a year. Surgical drainage or removal of the affected area (lesion) may be needed. If the condition is related to an IUD, the device must be removed.
Gilbert Greub is in Lausanne, Switzerland. Greub is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Actinomycosis. He is also highly rated in 15 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Whipple Disease, Actinomycosis, Chlamydia, and Pneumonia.
Florence Fenollar is in Marseille, France. Fenollar is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Actinomycosis. She is also highly rated in 16 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Actinomycosis, Whipple Disease, Pulmonary Actinomycosis, and Malabsorption.
Verena Moos is in Berlin, Germany. Moos is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Actinomycosis. She is also highly rated in 3 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Actinomycosis, Whipple Disease, Malabsorption, and Campylobacter Infection.
Full recovery can be expected with treatment.
In rare cases, meningitis can develop from actinomycosis. Meningitis is an infection if the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This membrane is called the meninges.
Call your provider if you develop symptoms of this infection. Starting treatment right away helps quicken the recovery.
Good oral hygiene and regular dentist visits may help prevent some forms of actinomycosis.
Published Date : November 09, 2019
Published By : Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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