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Outcome of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy with Tuberculosis Meningitis and Hydrocephalus.

Treatment Used: Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery (VPS)
Number of Patients: 30
MediFind Summary

Overview: This study described the outcome of ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and hydrocephalus who are HIV positive and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Conclusion: The outcome of ventriculoperitoneal shunting in HIV-positive patients with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus is markedly improved in patients on antiretroviral therapy. Based on limited data from this study, we recommend that better grades of tuberculous meningitis (1 and 2) undergo immediate ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. Patients with grade 4 tuberculous meningitis should undergo a trial of external ventricular drainage and those who improve should undergo a definitive procedure.

Abstract

Background: In 2000, we advised against insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) complicated by hydrocephalus. However, this was in the era when combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not freely available in South Africa. In this subsequent preliminary report, we describe the outcome of ventriculoperitoneal shunting in patients with TBM and hydrocephalus who are HIV positive and receiving ART.

Methods: We compared a group of 15 HIV-positive patients with TBM and hydrocephalus on ART with a retrospective control group of 15 patients (demographically and clinically matched) but not on ART. All patients were otherwise managed similarly and evaluated at 1 month after VPS insertion.

Results: In historical controls, 10 patients died (66.7%) and no patient showed any improvement 1 month after shunting. In contrast, in the current group on ART, 4 patients died (26.7%), with 11 patients (73.3%) having a good outcome. Eight of 12 patients with grade 3 TBM had a good outcome, whereas all 3 with grade 1 TBM made a good recovery.

Conclusions: The outcome of VP shunting in HIV-positive patients with TBM and hydrocephalus is markedly improved in patients on ART. Based on limited data from this study, we recommend that better grades of TBM (1 and 2) undergo immediate VPS surgery. Patients with grade 4 TBM should undergo a trial of external ventricular drainage and those who improve should undergo a definitive procedure. Further research is required for patients with grade 3 TBM to identify characteristics associated with better outcomes to allow for effective use of limited resources.

Authors
Rohen Harrichandparsad, Syed Nadvi, Mahomed-yunus Suleman Moosa, James Rikus Van Dellen

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