Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an inherited disorder caused by the buildup of a complex sugar called glycogen in the body's cells. The accumulated glycogen is structurally abnormal and impairs the function of certain organs and tissues, especially the liver and muscles. There are five types of GSD IV, which are distinguished by their severity, signs, and symptoms.
Mutations in the GBE1 gene cause GSD IV. The GBE1 gene provides instructions for making the glycogen branching enzyme. This enzyme is involved in the production of glycogen, which is a major source of stored energy in the body. GBE1 gene mutations that cause GSD IV lead to a shortage (deficiency) of the glycogen branching enzyme. As a result, glycogen is not formed properly. Abnormal glycogen molecules called polyglucosan bodies accumulate in cells, leading to damage and cell death. Polyglucosan bodies accumulate in cells throughout the body, but liver cells and muscle cells are most severely affected in GSD IV. Glycogen accumulation in the liver leads to hepatomegaly and interferes with liver functioning. The inability of muscle cells to break down glycogen for energy leads to muscle weakness and wasting.
GSD IV is estimated to occur in 1 in 600,000 to 800,000 individuals worldwide. Type IV accounts for roughly 3 percent of all cases of glycogen storage disease.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
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Published Date:updated Last, February
Published By: National Institutes of Health