Overview: This study analyzed and summarized the diagnosis and treatment experience of common inherited cardiac arrhythmia (heart quivering) syndrome in pediatric patients, and explored the most appropriate therapy.
Conclusion: Mortality rate is high in pediatric patients with inherited cardiac arrhythmia (heart quivering) and syncope (fainting). The therapeutic effect of drugs are not satisfactory, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation is the most effective treatment to prevent sudden cardiac death currently, but the postoperative frequent discharge should be brought to the forefront and handled in time.
Objective: To analyze and summarize the diagnosis and treatment experience of common inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndrome in pediatric patients, and explore the most appropriate therapy.
Methods: A retrospective review identified 30 pediatric cases (19 males, 11 females) diagnosed with long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenc right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) from January 2008 to December 2018 in the Pediatric Cardiology Department, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital. Data obtained included the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up outcome.
Results: The most common inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndromes were LQTS (n=14) including 1 case with epilepsy, CPVT (n=5), HCM (n=7), ARVC (n=1), and BrS (n=3). Twenty-seven cases were admitted to hospital due to syncope, whereas the remaining 3 cases of BrS had not presented with syncope before admission. The average onset age of inherited arrhythmia was (10.0±3.3) years. Genetic testing was performed on 20 patients. The median follow-up time was 40 months. Among 15 patients who underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and survived, 2 patients had frequent ICD discharge. One patient underwent radiofrequency ablation, and the other one received left cardiac sympathetic denervation and an increased ICD defibrillation threshold, and the number of ICD discharge was significantly reduced. Among 10 patients who received drug therapy, 4 patients including two patients who discontinued treatment without advices died. Two patients whose parents refused treatment died, 1 case diagnosed with unexplained sudden cerebral death, and the remaining 2 cases without indication for drug therapy survived without any treatment.
Conclusions: Mortality rate is high in pediatric patients with inherited cardiac arrhythmia and syncope. The therapeutic effect of drugs are not satisfactory, ICD implantation is the most effective treatment to prevent sudden cardiac death currently, but the postoperative frequent discharge should be brought to the forefront and handled in time.
Arrhythmias, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, Brugada Syndrome, Cardiac Arrest, Cardiomyopathy, Epilepsy, Fainting, Familial Ventricular Tachycardia, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Hyperventilation, Long QT Syndrome, Long QT Syndrome 1, Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia, Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT), Ventricular Tachycardia, Vertigo