Paraneoplastic pemphigus caused by pre-existing stroma-rich variant of Castleman disease: from a pathologist's point of view.

Journal: BMJ Case Reports

A young woman presented with mucocutaneous blisters and ulcerating lesions, and was diagnosed with erythrodermic pemphigus complicated by bronchiolitis obliterans. Her clinical condition did not improve on immunosuppressive therapy. She had a history of an asymptomatic retroperitoneal mass, presumed to be a dermoid cyst, followed up clinically. Due to the pre-existing nature of the retroperitoneal mass, the paraneoplastic nature of the pemphigus was initially not recognised, but after a multidisciplinary team meeting a biopsy was performed. Histology revealed a rare stroma-rich variant of Castleman disease with a prominent stroma demonstrating a myoid phenotype. Resection of the retroperitoneal tumour resulted in resolution of the cutaneous blisters. This emphasises the importance to consider paraneoplastic disease in treatment-resistant pemphigus as surgical removal of the tumour forms the mainstay of therapy. The differential diagnosis should include Castleman disease and careful evaluation of histology is essential with the awareness of this rare stroma-rich variant.

Paida Gwiti, sombor Melegh, arah Johnston, udit Sutak

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