Repeat stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.
Summary: This study evaluated the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
Conclusion: In patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation, treatment with repeat stereotactic radiosurgery was linked to better outcomes.
Objective: The purpose of this retrospective, single-institution study was to evaluate radiological and clinical outcomes of patients managed with repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for residual cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after prior SRS.
Methods: The authors evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of consecutive patients treated with repeat single-session SRS for a residual brain AVM from 1989 to 2021.
Results: In total, 170 patients underwent repeat SRS for AVM (90 [52.9%] females; median [interquartile range] age at the first SRS procedure 28 [21.5] years; median [interquartile range] age at the second SRS procedure 32 [22.5] years). After repeat SRS, the actuarial 3-, 5-, and 10-year AVM obliteration rates were 37.6%, 57.3%, and 80.9%, respectively. Higher obliteration rates were associated with margin dose ≥ 19 Gy (p = 0.001). After the second SRS procedure, hemorrhage occurred in 8.2% of patients and was lethal in 1 patient. The risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage were age < 18 years (p = 0.03) and residual AVM diameter > 20 mm (p = 0.004). Lower obliteration rates were noted in patients with residual AVM diameter > 20 mm (p = 0.04) and those < 18 years of age (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic, symptomatic, and permanent radiation-induced changes (RICs) after the second SRS procedure occurred in 25.9%, 8.8%, and 5.3% of patients, respectively, and were associated with RIC after the first SRS procedure (p = 0.006). There was 1 case of a radiation-induced meningioma 12 years after SRS.
Conclusions: Repeat SRS is a reasonable therapeutic option, in particular for patients with residual AVM. Repeat SRS was associated with more favorable outcomes in adult patients and those with residual AVM smaller than 20 mm in maximum diameter. To increase the rate of residual AVM obliteration, a prescription dose ≥ 19 Gy should ideally be used for repeat SRS.