Randomized controlled trial of the relative efficacy of high-dose intravenous ceftriaxone and oral cefixime combined with doxycycline for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection.
Summary: This study evaluated ceftriaxone plus doxycycline for the treatment of patients with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) co-infection.
Conclusion: In patients with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection, treatment with ceftriaxone plus doxycycline was better.
Objective: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the commonest bacterial causes of sexually transmitted infections in humans with high incidence of co-infection. Treatment with high doses of ceftriaxone (CRO) and cefixime (CFM) is strongly recommended due to the reduced drug susceptibility of NG. However, their safety and efficacy have not been confirmed. We compared the safety and efficacy of a single 1 g intravenous (IV) dose of ceftriaxone (CRO) plus doxycycline (DOX) versus a single 800 mg oral dose of cefixime (CFM) plus DOX for the treatment of NG-CT co-infection.
Methods: An open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted on 125 individuals aged > 18 years with untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia to compare a single 1 g intravenous dose of CRO + DOX and a single 800 mg oral dose of CFM + DOX. The primary outcome was the clearance of NG from all the initially infected sites. Secondary outcomes included symptom resolution, changes in the serum clearance levels, glomerular filtration rate, and antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations.
Results: Both regimens were highly effective in treating gonorrhea with success rates of 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.8-99.1%) for CRO and 95.3% (95% CI 87.1-98.4%) for CFM. However, CRO + DOX was superior to CFM + DOX for the treatment of NG-CT co-infection (odds ratio 4.41, 95% CI 1.11-25.7). The safety profiles of the two regimens were similar.
Conclusions: CRO + DOX was superior to CFM + DOX for the treatment of NG-CT co-infection. CFM + DOX may be indicated in patients with CRO allergy and in settings where CRO is unavailable. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05216744) on 31/01/22.