What is the definition of H Influenzae Meningitis?

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.

Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. Haemophilus influenzae type b is one kind of bacteria that causes meningitis.

What are the alternative names for H Influenzae Meningitis?

H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis

What are the causes for H Influenzae Meningitis?

H influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same as the flu (influenza), which is caused by a virus.

Before the Hib vaccine, H influenzae was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5. Since the vaccine became available in the United States, this type of meningitis occurs much less often in children.

H influenzae meningitis may occur after an upper respiratory infection. The infection usually spreads from the lungs and airways to the blood, then to the brain area.

Risk factors include:

  • Attending day care
  • Cancer
  • Ear infection (otitis media) with H influenzae infection
  • Family member with an H influenzae infection
  • Native American race
  • Pregnancy
  • Older age
  • Sinus infection (sinusitis)
  • Sore throat (pharyngitis)
  • Upper respiratory infection
  • Weakened immune system

What are the symptoms for H Influenzae Meningitis?

Symptoms usually come on quickly, and may include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Mental status changes
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • Severe headache
  • Stiff neck (meningismus)

Other symptoms that can occur include:

  • Agitation
  • Bulging fontanelles in infants
  • Decreased consciousness
  • Poor feeding and irritability in children
  • Rapid breathing
  • Unusual posture, with the head and neck arched backwards (opisthotonos)

What are the current treatments for H Influenzae Meningitis?

Antibiotics will be given as soon as possible. Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics. Ampicillin may sometimes be used.

Corticosteroids may be used to fight inflammation, especially in children.

Unvaccinated people who are in close contact with someone who has H influenzae meningitis should be given antibiotics to prevent infection. Such people include:

  • Household members
  • Roommates in dormitories
  • Those who come into close contact with an infected person

What is the outlook (prognosis) for H Influenzae Meningitis?

Meningitis is a dangerous infection and it can be deadly. The sooner it is treated, the better the chance for recovery. Young children and adults over age 50 have the highest risk for death.

What are the possible complications for H Influenzae Meningitis?

Long-term complications may include:

  • Brain damage
  • Buildup of fluid between the skull and brain (subdural effusion)
  • Buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling (hydrocephalus)
  • Hearing loss
  • Seizures

When should I contact a medical professional for H Influenzae Meningitis?

Call 911 or the local emergency number or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:

  • Feeding problems
  • High-pitched cry
  • Irritability
  • Persistent, unexplained fever

Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.

How do I prevent H Influenzae Meningitis?

Infants and young children can be protected with the Hib vaccine.

Close contacts in the same household, school, or day care center should be watched for early signs of the disease as soon as the first person is diagnosed. All unvaccinated family members and close contacts of this person should begin antibiotic treatment as soon as possible to prevent spread of the infection. Ask your provider about antibiotics during the first visit.

Always use good hygiene habits, such as washing hands before and after changing a diaper, and after using the bathroom.

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
CSF cell count
Haemophilus influenzae organism

REFERENCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Bacterial meningitis. www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html. Updated August 6, 2019. Accessed December 1, 2020.

Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 384.

Hasbun R, Van de Beek D, Brouwer MC, Tunkel AR. Acute meningitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 87.