A survey of the current status of research on the diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C virus antibody-positive pregnant women.
Summary: This study analyzed treatment for pregnant women with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
Conclusion: Treatment for pregnant women with hepatitis C virus infection is postpartum antiviral therapy.
Objective: To analyze the screening, diagnosis, epidemiology, pregnancy outcomes and treatment status in hepatitis C virus antibody-positive pregnant women, in order to provide clinical evidence for further improving prevention and control of maternal and infant safety.
Methods: Data of 246 HCV antibody-positive pregnant women admitted to the Second Hospital of Nanjing from January 2014 to December 2019 were analyzed by epidemiological survey research method. Statistical analysis was performed according to different data using t-test, χ2 test, corrected χ2 test or Fisher's exact test.
Results: 80 of 246 HCV antibody-positive women had confirmed infection before pregnancy. Of these, 85% were HCV RNA positive, and 16 became pregnant after antiviral therapy. Prenatal examination during pregnancy found that 166 cases were HCV RNA positive, and the HCV RNA positive rate was 81.93%. In the relationship between infection route and birth cohort in HCV antibody-positive pregnant women, there was a statistically significant differences in the proportions of transmission route among birth cohort (χ2=115.6, P＜0.001). With the delay of birth cohort, the proportion of infection through drug use was decreased (P＜0.001), while the proportion of acupuncture-associated infection (P=0.043) and infant hospitalization history were increased (P=0.005). Among pregnancy complications, HCV antibody-positive pregnant women in HCV RNA＜5.0 E+02 IU/ml and ≥5.0 E+02 IU/ml groups had intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (χ2=4.73, P=0.030) and gestational hypertension (χ2=8.65, P=0.003), and the difference in incidence was statistically significant. Postpartum treatment strategy data analysis showed that the treatment rate was highest in the first year of postpartum, and then showed an upward trend year by year, with a statistically significant difference (χ2=17.26,P =0.004).
Conclusion: Anti-HCV screening rates are lower among pregnant and reproductive age women. HCV screening should be used as an important supplementary means to strengthen maternal safety and health education management during pregnancy. Active postpartum antiviral therapy, with particularly emphasis on management within the first year after delivery, can significantly improve the treatment rate among women of child bearing age.