Midodrine for the prevention of vasovagal syncope: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal: Europace : European Pacing, Arrhythmias, And Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal Of The Working Groups On Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, And Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology Of The European Society Of Cardiology
Treatment Used: Midodrine
Number of Patients: 315
MediFind Summary

Summary: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of midodrine to prevent syncope in patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope.

Conclusion: Midodrine is effective in preventing syncope induced by positive head-up-tilt testing and less, but still significant risk reduction.


Aims: Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common clinical condition that lacks effective medical therapies despite being associated with significant morbidity. Current guidelines suggest that midodrine, a prodrug for an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, might suppress VVS but supporting studies have utilized heterogeneous methods and yielded inconsistent results. To evaluate the efficacy of midodrine to prevent syncope in patients with recurrent VVS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. Methods and

Results: Relevant randomized controlled trials were identified from the MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and CINAHL databases without language restriction from inception to June 2021. All studies were conducted in clinical syncope populations and compared the benefit of midodrine vs. placebo or non-pharmacological standard care. Weighted relative risks (RRs) were estimated using random effects meta-analysis techniques. Seven studies (n = 315) met inclusion criteria. Patients were 33 ± 17 years of age and 31% male. Midodrine was found to substantially reduce the likelihood of positive head-up-tilt (HUT) test outcomes [RR = 0.37 (0.23-0.59), P < 0.001]. In contrast, the pooled results of single- and double-blind clinical trials (I2 = 54%) suggested a more modest benefit from midodrine for the prevention of clinical syncope [RR = 0.51 (0.33-0.79), P = 0.003]. The two rigorous double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials included 179 VVS patients with minimal between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 0%) and reported a risk reduction with midodrine [RR = 0.71 (0.53-0.95), P = 0.02].

Conclusions: Midodrine is effective in preventing syncope induced by HUT testing and less, but still significant, RR reduction in randomized, double-blinded clinical trials.

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