Complete Corpus Callosotomy for Refractory Epilepsy in Children.

Journal: World Neurosurgery
Treatment Used: Complete Corpus Callosotomy
Number of Patients: 1
Published:
MediFind Summary

Summary: This case report describes a a 4-year-old boy with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome treated with open single-stage complete callosotomy.

Conclusion: Treatment with open single-stage complete callosotomy may be safe and effective for children with refractory epilepsy.

Abstract

Corpus callosotomy is an interhemispheric disconnection by callosal commissural fiber ablation. Its rationale is the disruption of ictal spread to prevent seizure generalization. The objective pursued is alleviation of intractable, debilitating, and injurious manifestations of generalized epilepsy.1 Eight decades of experience support this procedure's safety and effectiveness for appropriately selected patients with drug-resistant epilepsy not amenable to optimal resection; particularly, favorable outcomes for tonic or atonic seizures with drop attacks have been reported.2,3 Children may benefit more than adults from callosotomy for improved daily function, psychosocial adjustment, and family satisfaction.4 A meta-analysis found a better seizure reduction from total than partial callosotomy (88.2% vs. 58.6% of worthwhile reduction) comprising drop-attacks (77.8% vs. 45.4%) with an increased but transient (i.e., resolution within 6 weeks) risk of significant disconnection syndromes (12.5% vs. none).5 Here, we present the illustrative case of a 4-year-old boy with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who underwent open single-stage complete callosotomy. Video 1 shows the microscope-assisted interhemispheric approach aided by stereotactic navigation. We showcase critical steps such as dissection of cingulate gyri and anterior and then posterior callosotomy while highlighting crucial anatomic landmarks. This procedure may be accessible for epilepsy surgeons worldwide in resource-constrained environments6 while serving as a basis for promising high-technology development (e.g., endoscopic, radiosurgical, laser interstitial thermal therapy, or magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound callosotomies). In this video article, we aim to provide a streamlined and stepwise approach to this rare but important epilepsy surgery.

Authors
Sami Barrit, Eun-hyoung Park, Salim El Hadwe, Joseph Madsen

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