Learn About Interstitial Nephritis

What is the definition of Interstitial Nephritis?

Interstitial nephritis is a kidney disorder in which the spaces between the kidney tubules become swollen (inflamed). This can cause problems with the way your kidneys work.

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What are the alternative names for Interstitial Nephritis?

Tubulointerstitial nephritis; Nephritis - interstitial; Acute interstitial (allergic) nephritis

What are the causes of Interstitial Nephritis?

Interstitial nephritis may be temporary (acute), or it may be long-lasting (chronic) and get worse over time.

The acute form of interstitial nephritis is most often caused by side effects of certain drugs.

The following can cause interstitial nephritis:

  • Allergic reaction to a drug (acute interstitial allergic nephritis).
  • Autoimmune disorders, such as anti-tubular basement membrane disease or Kawasaki disease.
  • Infections.
  • Long-term use of medicines such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This is called analgesic nephropathy.
  • Side effect of certain antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, methicillin, and sulfonamide medicines.
  • Side effect of other medicines such as furosemide, thiazide diuretics, omeprazole, triamterene, and allopurinol.
  • Too little potassium in your blood.
  • Too much calcium or uric acid in your blood.
What are the symptoms of Interstitial Nephritis?

Interstitial nephritis can cause mild to severe kidney problems, including acute kidney failure. In about half of cases, people will have decreased urine output and other signs of acute kidney failure.

Symptoms of this condition may include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Fever
  • Increased or decreased urine output
  • Mental status changes (drowsiness, confusion, coma)
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Rash
  • Swelling of any area of body
  • Weight gain (from retaining fluid)
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What are the current treatments for Interstitial Nephritis?

Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. Avoiding medicines that lead to this condition may quickly relieve symptoms.

Limiting salt and fluid in the diet can improve swelling and high blood pressure. Limiting protein in the diet can help control the buildup of waste products in the blood (azotemia), which can lead to symptoms of acute kidney failure.

If dialysis is necessary, it usually is required for only a short time.

Corticosteroids or stronger anti-inflammatory medicines such as cyclophosphamide can sometimes be helpful.

Who are the top Interstitial Nephritis Local Doctors?
Highly rated in

University Of Antwerp

Antwerpen, VLG, BE 2000

Marc De Broe is in Antwerpen, Belgium. De Broe is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Interstitial Nephritis. He is also highly rated in 4 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Interstitial Nephritis, Dehydration, Lactic Acidosis, and Calcinosis.

Highly rated in

Division Of Rheumatology

Kanazawa, JP 

Mitsuhiro Kawano is in Kanazawa, Japan. Kawano is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Interstitial Nephritis. They are also highly rated in 25 other conditions, according to our data. Their top areas of expertise are IgG4-Related Disease, Interstitial Nephritis, Retroperitoneal Fibrosis, and Lymphoid Hyperplasia.

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Highly rated in

University Of Antwerp

Department Of Biomedical Sciences 
Wilrijk, VLG, BE 2610

Benjamin Vervaet is in Wilrijk, Belgium. Vervaet is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Interstitial Nephritis. He is also highly rated in 5 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Interstitial Nephritis, Nephrocalcinosis, Dehydration, and Calcinosis.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Interstitial Nephritis?

Most often, interstitial nephritis is a short-term disorder. In rare cases, it can cause permanent damage, including long-term (chronic) kidney failure.

Acute interstitial nephritis may be more severe and more likely to lead to long-term or permanent kidney damage in older people.

What are the possible complications of Interstitial Nephritis?

Metabolic acidosis can occur because the kidneys aren't able to remove enough acid. The disorder can lead to acute or chronic kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease.

When should I contact a medical professional for Interstitial Nephritis?

Contact your provider if you have symptoms of interstitial nephritis.

If you have interstitial nephritis, contact your provider if you get new symptoms, especially if you are less alert or have a decrease in urine output.

How do I prevent Interstitial Nephritis?

Often, the disorder can't be prevented. Avoiding or reducing your use of medicines that can cause this condition can help reduce your risk. If needed, your provider will tell you which medicines to stop or reduce.

Kidney anatomy
What are the latest Interstitial Nephritis Clinical Trials?
The Validity of the Quick Renal MRI in Pediatric Kidney Disease
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A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study of Early-Use Long Acting Tacrolimus (Envarsus XR) in Lung Transplant Recipients
What are the Latest Advances for Interstitial Nephritis?
Oral Tebipenem Pivoxil Hydrobromide in Complicated Urinary Tract Infection.
Acute Interstitial Nephritis and Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: Single Center Experience of Management and Drug Rechallenge.
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Comparing outcomes among outpatients treated for pyelonephritis with oral cephalosporins versus first-line agents.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date : July 27, 2021
Published By : Walead Latif, MD, Nephrologist and Clinical Associate Professor, Rutgers Medical School, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Neilson EG. Tubulointerstitial diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 114.

Perazella MA, Rosner MH. Tubulointerstitial diseases. In: Yu ASL, Chertow GM, Luyckx VA, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Taal MW, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 35.

Tanaka T, Nangaku M. Chronic interstitial nephritis. In: Feehally J, Floege J, Tonelli M, Johnson RJ, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 62.