Possible Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Predictors of the Efficacy and Safety of Carbamazepine in Post-COVID-19 Depression.
Summary: This review of the literature investigated the safety and effectiveness of carbamazepine (CMZ) in the treatment of patients with post-COVID-19 depression.
Conclusion: In patients with post-COVID-19 depression, treatment with carbamazepine may be an alternative.
Background: Individuals who have suffered from novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are at risk for developing post-COVID neuropsychiatric disorders, which are an integral part of the Long COVID syndrome. Depression and/or anxiety are considered the most common psychiatric disorders after experiencing COVID-19. Certain antiepileptic drugs, notably, carbamazepine (CMZ), are effective in the treatment of mood disorders, especially as mood stabilizers in bipolar affective disorder (BAD), but the efficacy of CMZ in Long COVID remains to be established. The aim of the review was to investigate pharmacogenetic predictors of safety and efficacy of CMZ in patients with depressive symptoms of Long COVID during the post-infection period.
Methods: We carried out a systematic search for publications in English and Russian on the safety and efficacy of CMZ in depressive disorders of different etiologies in the PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, Clinical Keys, Google Schooler, E-Library databases using keywords and combined word searches (carbamazepine, COVID-19, depression, epilepsy, post-COVID-syndrome) for the period from January 01,2020 to June 10, 2022.
Results: We review the main adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with CMZ, drug-drug interactions, and genetic predictors of the development of ADR. Here, we consider as risk factors, candidate genes for CMZ metabolism, CMZ transport, immunohistocompatibility genes, and candidate genes for QT prolongation.
Conclusions: The choice of antidepressant treatment for patients with Long COVID is fraught because of the frequent occurrence of subclinical (interictal) epileptiform activity in the EEG. Consequently, antidepressant medications with a proconvulsant effect are contraindicated for Long COVID patients. CMZ may be a promising alternative for the treatment of depressive disorders in Long COVID states, given its mood-stabilizer, antidepressant, and antiepileptic profile.