Preoperative Arterial Coil Embolization for Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Surgery in Children with TMJ Ankylosis.
Summary: This case series describes children with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis treated with preoperative arterial coil embolization.
Conclusion: In children with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, treatment with preoperative arterial coil embolization can be successful.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in children can alter facial development and affect oral hygiene and function. Surgical release of the ankylosis is the mainstay of treatment. The authors hypothesize that preoperative arterial coil embolization is safe and effective in preventing major blood loss during TMJ surgery (loss prompting blood transfusion or hemodynamic instability requiring vasoactive medication administration) in children with TMJ ankylosis. Patients < 16 years who were diagnosed with TMJ ankylosis (<15 maximal interincisal opening) and had embolization before surgery in the last 5 years were included. Out of 9 initial search results, 3 patients were excluded (age > 16). Information gathered were patient demographics, diagnostic imaging, procedural details, complications, and clinical outcomes. Six patients, mean age 11.14 years (range 7-15 years) year and a mean weight of 40.8 ± 19 kg were included. Underlying etiologies for TMJ ankylosis: Pierre Robin Syndrome (n = 2), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (n = 1), Goldenhar's syndrome (n = 1), trauma (n = 1), and micrognathia (n = 1). Neck computed tomography angiogram before embolization demonstrated an intimate approximation between the internal maxillary artery (IMAX) and/or external carotid artery and ankylotic mass in all patients. Eight successful embolizations were performed without procedural complication. In 1 patient with angiographic evidence of surgical internal maxillary artery ligation, embolization was performed via collaterals. Surgery was performed within 48 hours of embolization. Airway access during surgery was via nasal intubation (n = 4), oral intubation (n = 3). The estimated blood loss (EBL) during surgery was 78.33 ± 47.08 ml. Three patients had subsequent TMJ surgery with a mean estimated blood loss of 73.33 ± 46.18 ml. After a mean follow-up of 17 ± 15 months, patients showed a 13.8mm mean increment of maximal interincisal opening with 95% CI (5.74-21.9), P < 0.007.