The value of a simple method to decrease diagnostic errors in Turner syndrome: a case report.
Introduction: Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder in females and is the result of complete or partial loss of an X chromosome during fertilization. The missing X chromosome is originally either from the mother's ovum or the father's sperm cell. Approximately 45% of patients have the 45,X karyotype and the rest have other variants of Turner syndrome, which are either mosaicism patterns or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. Here, we report a case of Turner syndrome that is the fifth case of Turner syndrome with balanced Robertsonian translocation of (13;14)(q10;q10), and the sixth case with 44,X chromosomes, reported in the literature thus far. CASE PRESENTATION: A 10.3-year-old Persian girl was brought to our clinic by her parents, with the complaint of failure to thrive and short height. She had been examined and investigated by endocrinologists since the age of 4 years, but no definite diagnosis was made. At the time of presentation, she had been through three provocative growth hormone tests and had been on no medications for about a year. Her physical examination revealed mild retrognathia and micrognathia. Initially, she was started on somatropin treatment which, after 12 months, did not appropriately improve her height velocity. Therefore, a more thorough physical examination was performed, in which high arched palate and low posterior hairline were observed. There was also a difference between target height and patient height standard deviation scores. Karyotype study was requested, and Turner syndrome was confirmed.
Conclusion: The diagnosis of this case was not straightforward, both because the somatic presentations were not obvious, and because the physicians had not looked for them when performing the physical examinations. This case report introduces a rare 44,X chromosome karyotype of Turner syndrome and highlights the value in using the difference between target height and patient height standard deviation scores as a simple and inexpensive tool for diagnosis of this syndrome.