Anesthetic Management of Treacher Collins Syndrome in an Outpatient Surgical Center.
BACKGROUND Treacher Collins syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by micrognathia and abnormal development of the zygomatic arch, which may result in significant upper airway obstruction. As patients who have it age, their upper airway obstruction may worsen. Therefore, they typically require several surgeries throughout their lives to correct specific facial abnormalities. Anesthetic and airway management of patients with Treacher Collins syndrome can be challenging for anesthesia providers, especially in ambulatory settings. CASE REPORT A 15-year-old patient with Treacher Collins syndrome presented to our outpatient surgery center for midface fat grafting. He had undergone multiple surgical procedures at Nationwide Children's Hospital, which is affiliated with The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. A decision was made to proceed with the grafting surgery after: (1) the literature was thoroughly reviewed; (2) multidisciplinary planning had been done utilizing our comprehensive preoperative screening and assessment process; (3) the scope of care at our ambulatory surgery center, the patient's medical history, and relevant airway notes had been reviewed; (4) the case was discussed with the surgeon; and (5) relevant images of the patient had been gathered. Evaluation of the patient's airway on the day of surgery was reassuring and a plan for managing a potentially difficult airway had been developed. After anesthetic induction, mask ventilation without adjuvants was successful. Video and direct laryngoscopy (for purposes of education) revealed grade 1 views. Supraglottic airway device placement resulted in an effective seal and the remainder of the surgery and the patient's subsequent course were uneventful. CONCLUSIONS Improved airway approaches, combined with thorough preoperative screening and multidisciplinary planning and communication, may make it possible to perform ambulatory surgery on patients with Treacher Collins syndrome, whose condition typically represents a significant challenge to anesthesia providers.