Clinical improvement of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis after challenging course and 6 months of total parenteral nutrition in child with nephronophthisis: a case report.
Background: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is a rare but potentially lethal complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis varies worldwide, but is increased in patients maintained on peritoneal dialysis for 5-8 years. The etiology of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis remains unidentified, and a high index of clinical suspicion is required for diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 5-year-old Saudi female with end-stage renal disease secondary to nephronophthisis type 2. She underwent peritoneal dialysis for 30 months, with four episodes of peritonitis. She presented with clinical signs of peritonitis. Three days later, she developed septic shock, which required pediatric intensive care unit admission. The peritoneal dialysis catheter was removed because of refractory peritonitis. Her course was complicated by small bowel perforation, and severe adhesions were revealed on abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography, consistent with a diagnosis of EPS. This finding was later confirmed by diagnostic laparotomy performed twice and complicated by recurrent abdominal wall fistula. She received total parenteral nutrition for 6 months and several courses of antibiotics. The patient received supportive treatment including nutritional optimization and treatment for infection. No other treatments, such as immunosuppression, were administered to avoid risk of infection. Following a complicated hospital course, the patient restarted oral intake after 6 months of total parenteral nutrition dependency. Her abdominal fistula resolved completely, and she was maintained on hemodialysis for few years before she received a kidney transplant.
Conclusion: When treating patients using peritoneal dialysis, it is important to consider encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with refractory peritonitis, which is not always easy to identify, particularly if the patient has been maintained on peritoneal dialysis for less than 3 years. Early identification of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis and appropriate conservative treatment, including nutritional optimization and treatment of infections, are essential to achieve a better prognosis.