The efficacy of Soliris for the treatment of gMG was established in gMG Study 1 (NCT01997229), a 26-week randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial that enrolled patients who met the following criteria at screening:
- Positive serologic test for anti-AChR antibodies,
- Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) Clinical Classification Class II to IV,
- MG-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) total score ≥6,
- Failed treatment over 1 year or more with 2 or more immunosuppressive therapies (ISTs) either in combination or as monotherapy, or failed at least 1 IST and required chronic plasmapheresis or plasma exchange (PE) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg).
A total of 62 patients were randomized to receive Soliris treatment and 63 were randomized to receive placebo. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups, including age at diagnosis (38 years in each group), gender [66% female (eculizumab) versus 65% female (placebo)], and duration of gMG [9.9 (eculizumab) versus 9.2 (placebo) years]. Over 95% of patients in each group were receiving acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors, and 98% were receiving immunosuppressant therapies (ISTs). Approximately 50% of each group had been previously treated with at least 3 ISTs.
The primary efficacy endpoint for gMG Study 1 was a comparison of the change from baseline between treatment groups in the Myasthenia Gravis-Specific Activities of Daily Living scale (MG-ADL) total score at Week 26. The MG-ADL is a categorical scale that assesses the impact on daily function of 8 signs or symptoms that are typically affected in gMG. Each item is assessed on a 4-point scale where a score of 0 represents normal function and a score of 3 represents loss of ability to perform that function (total score 0-24). A statistically significant difference favoring Soliris was observed in the mean change from baseline to Week 26 in MG-ADL total scores [-4.2 points in the Soliris-treated group compared with -2.3 points in the placebo-treated group (p=0.006)].
A key secondary endpoint in gMG Study 1 was the change from baseline in the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) total score at Week 26. The QMG is a 13-item categorical scale assessing muscle weakness. Each item is assessed on a 4-point scale where a score of 0 represents no weakness and a score of 3 represents severe weakness (total score 0-39). A statistically significant difference favoring Soliris was observed in the mean change from baseline to Week 26 in QMG total scores [-4.6 points in the Soliris-treated group compared with -1.6 points in the placebo-treated group (p=0.001)].
The results of the analysis of the MG-ADL and QMG from gMG Study 1 are shown in Table 21.
In gMG Study 1, a clinical response was defined in the MG-ADL total score as at least a 3-point improvement and in QMG total score as at least a 5-point improvement. The proportion of clinical responders at Week 26 with no rescue therapy was statistically significantly higher for Soliris compared to placebo for both measures. For both endpoints, and also at higher response thresholds (≥4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-point improvement on MG-ADL, and ≥6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, or 10-point improvement on QMG), the proportion of clinical responders was consistently greater for Soliris compared to placebo. Available data suggest that clinical response is usually achieved by 12 weeks of Soliris treatment.