Learn About Orchitis

What is the definition of Orchitis?

Orchitis is swelling (inflammation) of one or both of the testicles.

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What are the alternative names for Orchitis?

Epididymo - orchitis; Testis infection

What are the causes of Orchitis?

Orchitis may be caused by an infection. Many types of bacteria and viruses can cause this condition.

The most common virus that causes orchitis is mumps. It most often occurs in boys after puberty. Orchitis most often develops 4 to 6 days after the mumps begins.

Orchitis may also occur along with infections of the prostate or epididymis.

Orchitis may be caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. The rate of sexually transmitted orchitis or epididymitis is higher in men ages 19 to 35.

Risk factors for sexually transmitted orchitis include:

  • High-risk sexual behaviors
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Personal history of gonorrhea or another STI
  • Sexual partner with a diagnosed STI

Risk factors for orchitis not due to an STI include:

  • Being older than age 45
  • Long-term use of a Foley catheter
  • Not being vaccinated against the mumps
  • Problems of the urinary tract that were present at birth (congenital)
  • Repeated urinary tract infections
  • Surgery of the urinary tract (genitourinary surgery)
  • BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) - enlarged prostate
  • Urethral stricture (scarring inside urinary tract)
What are the symptoms of Orchitis?

Symptoms include:

  • Pain in the testicle
  • Blood in the semen
  • Discharge from penis
  • Fever
  • Groin pain
  • Pain with intercourse or ejaculation
  • Pain with urination (dysuria)
  • Scrotal swelling
  • Tender, swollen groin area on affected side
  • Tender, swollen, heavy feeling in the testicle
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What are the current treatments for Orchitis?

Treatment may include:

  • Antibiotics, if the infection is caused by bacteria. (In the case of gonorrhea or chlamydia, sexual partners must also be treated.)
  • Anti-inflammatory medicines.
  • Pain medicines.
  • Bed rest with the scrotum elevated and ice packs applied to the area.
Who are the top Orchitis Local Doctors?
Highly rated in

Universidad De Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires, C, AR 

Patricia Jacobo is in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Jacobo is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Orchitis. She is also highly rated in 1 other condition, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Orchitis and Necrosis.

Highly rated in

University Of Tokyo

Shinjuku, JP 

Ning Qu is in Shinjuku, Japan. Qu is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Orchitis. She is also highly rated in 2 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Orchitis, Testicular Cancer, Epididymitis, and Sciatica.

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Highly rated in

Aichi Medical University

Nagakute, JP 

Munekazu Naito is in Nagakute, Japan. Naito is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Orchitis. They are also highly rated in 3 other conditions, according to our data. Their top areas of expertise are Orchitis, Epididymitis, Colostomy, and Diethylstilbestrol Syndrome.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Orchitis?

Getting the right diagnosis and treatment for orchitis caused by bacteria can most often allow the testicle to recover normally.

You will need further testing to rule out testicular cancer if the testicle does not completely return to normal after treatment.

Mumps orchitis cannot be treated, and the outcome can vary. Men who have had mumps orchitis can become sterile.

What are the possible complications of Orchitis?

Some boys who get orchitis caused by mumps will have shrinking of the testicles (testicular atrophy).

Orchitis may also cause infertility.

Other potential complications include:

  • Chronic epididymitis
  • Death of testicle tissue (testicular infarction)
  • Fistula on the skin of the scrotum (cutaneous scrotal fistula)
  • Scrotal abscess

Acute pain in the scrotum or testicles can be caused by twisting of the testicular blood vessels (torsion). This is a medical emergency that requires immediate surgery.

A swollen testicle with little or no pain may be a sign of testicular cancer. If this is the case, you should have a testicular ultrasound.

When should I contact a medical professional for Orchitis?

See your health care provider for an exam if you have testicle problems.

Get emergency medical help if you have sudden pain in the testicle.

How do I prevent Orchitis?

Things you can do to prevent the problem include:

  • Get vaccinated against mumps.
  • Practice safer sex behaviors to decrease your risk for STIs.
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What are the latest Orchitis Clinical Trials?
Prospective Observational Study on SEBBIN Silicone Gel-filled Testicular Implants
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What are the Latest Advances for Orchitis?
Unique Tropism and Entry Mechanism of Mumps Virus.
SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the lower urinary tract and male genital system: A systematic review.
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Relationship between COVID-19 and the male reproductive system.
What are our references for Orchitis?

Mason WH, Gans HA . Mumps. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 275.

McGowan CC. Prostatitis, epididymitis, and orchitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 110.

Pontari M. Inflammatory and pain conditions of the male genitourinary tract: prostatitis and related pain conditions, orchitis, and epididymitis. In: Partin AW, Domochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 56.