Impact of immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab on respiratory syncytial virus infection in preterm infants less than 35 weeks in Colombian hospitals.

Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology
Treatment Used: Palivizumab
Number of Patients: 222
MediFind Summary

Summary: This study evaluated the immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab in preterm infants.

Conclusion: Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab was effective in preventing respiratory syncytial virus infection in preterm infants.


Objective: To evaluate the impact of immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab in preterm infants less than 35 weeks in terms of hospitalization rate, intensive care unit requirement, and mortality.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at six Colombian hospitals. Preterm infants less than 35 weeks who received at least one dose of palivizumab during the first 6 months of life were included. The primary outcome was the hospitalization rate related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.

Results: A total of 222 newborns participated in the study; 204 (91.8%) completed the 6-month follow-up, and three died during the study. 88.7% received a second dose of palivizumab, 79.7% a third, 34.7% a fourth, and 25.2% a fifth. The nonadjusted incidence rate of RSV infection was 2.4%, and the overall RSV-positive hospitalization rate was 1.9%. The proportion of patients that required Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and mechanical ventilation in relation to RSV infection was 1.4%. Discharge with home oxygen, pulmonary dysplasia, and being younger than 6 months were significantly associated with respiratory infection. Furthermore, exposition to cigarette smoke was the only factor associated with increased risk of hospitalization. The group that required hospitalization received fewer doses of palivizumab (p = 0.049). No discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events were reported. No death was judged to be related to palivizumab.

Conclusion: The hospitalization rate and the need for NICU admission were lower than those reported in the literature. In this real-life setting, palivizumab appears to be effective in preventing serious cases of RSV infection.

Clara Galvis, Alejandro Colmenares, Lina Cabrales, Linda Ibatá, Juliana Marulanda, Oscar Ovalle, Dionisio Puello, Catherine Rojas, Martha Africano, Adriana Ballesteros, Héctor Posso

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