Polyhydramnios occurs when too much amniotic fluid builds up during pregnancy. It is also called amniotic fluid disorder, or hydramnios.
Pregnancy - polyhydramnios; Hydramnios - polyhydramnios
Amniotic fluid is the liquid that surrounds the baby in the womb (uterus). It comes from the baby's kidneys, and it goes into the uterus from the baby's urine. The fluid is absorbed when the baby swallows it and through breathing motions.
While in the womb, the baby floats in the amniotic fluid. It surrounds and cushions the infant during pregnancy. The amount of amniotic fluid is greatest at 34 to 36 weeks of pregnancy. Then the amount slowly decreases until the baby is born.
The amniotic fluid:
Polyhydramnios can occur if the baby does not swallow and absorb amniotic fluid in normal amounts. This can happen if the baby has certain health problems, including:
It can also happen if the mother has poorly controlled diabetes.
Polyhydramnios also may occur if too much fluid is produced. This may be due to:
Sometimes, no specific cause is found.
Call your health care provider if you are pregnant and notice that your belly is getting large very quickly.
Your provider measures the size of your belly at every visit. This shows the size of your womb. If your womb is growing faster than expected, or it is larger than normal for your baby's gestational age, the provider may:
If your provider finds a birth defect, you may need amniocentesis to test for a genetic defect.
Mild polyhydramnios that shows up later in pregnancy often doesn't cause serious problems.
Severe polyhydramnios may be treated with medicine or by having extra fluid removed.
Women with polyhydramnios are more likely to go into early labor. The baby will need to be delivered in a hospital. That way, the providers can immediately check the health of the mother and baby and give treatment if needed.
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Gilbert WM. Amniotic fluid disorders. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbe's Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 28.
Suhrie KR, Tabbah SM. The fetus. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 115.