Overview: This study evaluated the outcome of pulmonary resection (the removal of all or part of a lung) in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergilloma (a long-term fungal infection).
Conclusion: Pulmonary resection (the removal of all or part of a lung) for chronic pulmonary aspergilloma (a long-term fungal infection) showed favorable outcomes when done with good patient selection, meticulous surgical techniques, and good postoperative (after surgery) management.
Background: Surgical management of pulmonary aspergillosis is challenging and controversial. This study is designed to assess the clinical profile, indications and surgical outcome of Pulmonary aspergilloma.
Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 72 patients who underwent pulmonary resection for pulmonary aspergilloma over the period from November, 2014, to November, 2019 was done. Data on demographic, clinical and surgical out come were retrieved. Analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Chi-square test was used to assess for significance of the association between variables and surgical outcome.
Results: There were 46(63.9%) males and 26(36.1%) female patients with a mean age of 35.2+/-11.6 years (Range 16- 65 years). All patients were previously treated for tuberculosis. Cough, hemoptysis, and shortness of breath were the main symptoms identified. A ball of fungus together with the surrounding lung was removed. Accordingly, 32(44,4%) lobectomies, 12(16.7%) pneumonectomy, 7(9.7%) Bi-lobectomy, and 21(29.2%) cavernostomy were done. Intraoperative and Postoperative complications were seen in 8(11.1%) and 21(29.1%) patients respectively. Major morbidity encounters included massive intraoperative blood loss, prolonged air leak, empyema, air space, bronchopleural fistula, and wound infection. The hospital mortality was 3(4.2%) and the average hospital stay was 14.8days. Postoperative complications were evaluated for the difference in socio-demographic characteristics and other variables and a statistically significant difference was detected only for the location of aspergilloma, site of the lung involved and type of surgery done. (P-value =0.05.).
Conclusions: Pulmonary resection done for pulmonary aspergilloma showed favorable outcomes when done with good patient selection, meticulous surgical techniques, and good postoperative management. However, its long term outcome and role of antifungal treatment as adjunctive therapy for surgical resection need further investigation.