Overview: This study tested the safety and efficacy of using a nephrectomy to treat patients with multicentric or bilaterally predisposed unilateral Wilm's tumor.
Conclusion: The study found that, after a median 4.49-year followup, the 4-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 94% and 100%, respectively.
Background: A primary objective of Children's Oncology Group study AREN0534 (Treatment for Patients With Multicentric or Bilaterally Predisposed, Unilateral Wilms Tumor) was to facilitate partial nephrectomy in 25% of children with bilaterally predisposed unilateral tumors (Wilms tumor/aniridia/genitourinary anomalies/range of developmental delays [WAGR] syndrome; and multifocal and overgrowth syndromes). The purpose of this prospective study was to achieve excellent event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) while preserving renal tissue through preoperative chemotherapy, completing definitive surgery by 12 weeks from diagnosis, and modifying postoperative chemotherapy based on histologic response.
Methods: The treating institution identified whether a predisposition syndrome existed. Patients underwent a central review of imaging studies through the biology and classification study AREN03B2 and then were eligible to enroll on AREN0534. Patients were treated with induction chemotherapy determined by localized or metastatic disease on imaging (and histology if a biopsy had been undertaken). Surgery was based on radiographic response at 6 or 12 weeks. Further chemotherapy was determined by histology. Patients who had stage III or IV disease with favorable histology received radiotherapy as well as those who had stage I through IV anaplasia.
Results: In total, 34 patients were evaluable, including 13 males and 21 females with a mean age at diagnosis of 2.79 years (range, 0.49-8.78 years). The median follow-up was 4.49 years (range, 1.67-8.01 years). The underlying diagnosis included Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in 9 patients, hemihypertrophy in 9 patients, multicentric tumors in 10 patients, WAGR syndrome in 2 patients, a solitary kidney in 2 patients, Denys-Drash syndrome in 1 patient, and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome in 1 patient. The 4-year EFS and OS rates were 94% (95% CI, 85.2%-100%) and 100%, respectively. Two patients relapsed (1 tumor bed, 1 abdomen), and none had disease progression during induction. According to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor 1.1 criteria, radiographic responses included a complete response in 2 patients, a partial response in 21 patients, stable disease in 11 patients, and progressive disease in 0 patients. Posttherapy histologic classification was low-risk in 13 patients (including the 2 complete responders), intermediate-risk in 15 patients, and high-risk in 6 patients (1 focal anaplasia and 5 blastemal subtype). Prenephrectomy chemotherapy facilitated renal preservation in 22 of 34 patients (65%).
Conclusions: A standardized approach of preoperative chemotherapy, surgical resection within 12 weeks, and histology-based postoperative chemotherapy results in excellent EFS, OS, and preservation of renal parenchyma.