Effects and outcomes of septostomy in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome after fetoscopic laser therapy.

Journal: BMC Pregnancy And Childbirth
Treatment Used: Septostomy
Number of Patients: 159
Published:
MediFind Summary

Summary: This study evaluated the incidence and outcomes of septostomy in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) after fetoscopic laser therapy.

Conclusion: Post-laser septostomy in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome was associated with poorer fetal survival and more adverse perinatal outcomes even after considering severe Quintero stages before laser therapy. Efforts should be made to prevent septostomy during laser therapy, and septostomy as the primary method to treat twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is not advisable.

Abstract

Background: To evaluate the incidence and outcomes of septostomy in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) after fetoscopic laser therapy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of TTTS postlaser septostomy between 2005 and 2018 was performed. Postlaser septostomy was diagnosed using both (1) a free-floating intertwin membrane flap visible on ultrasound examination and (2) the rapid equalization of amniotic fluid maximum vertical pocket in the donor and recipient amniotic sacs observed after laser therapy. Perinatal survival, neonatal brain image anomaly, gestational age at operation and birth, incidence of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) within 3 weeks after operation, pseudoamniotic band syndrome, and cord entanglement were evaluated.

Results: In the 159 TTTS cases included, 12 had postlaser septostomy. Relative to the group without septostomy, the septostomy group had a lower total fetal survival rate (54.2% vs 73.6%, p = 0.041), an earlier mean gestational age at delivery (27.8 vs 34.4 weeks, p = 0.009), a higher risk of PROMs within 3 weeks after operation (33.3% vs 5.4%, p = 0.004), a higher cord entanglement rate (16.7% vs 0%, p = 0.005), and a higher brain image anomaly rate (23.0% [3/13] vs 5.0% [11/218], p = 0.035). After considering the severe Quintero stages (stage III and IV), postlaser septostomy was the only variable [p = 0.003, odds ratio = 5.1] to predict neonatal brain image anomaly. Postlaser septostomy combined with severe Quintero stages could predict PROMs within 3 weeks after laser therapy [p = 0.001, odds ratio = 14.1 and p = 0.03, odds ratio = 5.4, respectively] and delivery before the gestational age of 28 weeks [p = 0.017, odds ratio = 4.5 and p = 0.034, odds ratio = 2.3, respectively]. The risk of pseudoamniotic band syndrome was not increased by postlaser septostomy in this case series.

Conclusions: Postlaser septostomy in TTTS was associated with poorer fetal survival and more adverse perinatal outcomes even after considering severe Quintero stages before laser therapy. Efforts should be made to prevent septostomy during laser therapy, and septostomy as the primary method to treat TTTS is not advisable.

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