Monozygotic twins discordant for homologous Robertsonian translocation trisomy 21 of 46, XX, + 21, der (21;21) (q10; q10) in a twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, case report.

Journal: BMC Pregnancy And Childbirth

Background: Monozygotic twins are nearly identical in genotype and phenotype because monozygotic twins arise from one fertilized oocyte. In all cases of discordant karyotype in monozygotic twins, trisomy 21 accounts for about one in 385,000. Monozygotic twins discordant for Robertsonian translocation trisomy 21 of the der (21;21)(q10;q10), in which the additional chromosome originates from the father is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old parous woman, G3P1A0, came to our institution for a dating scan at 8 weeks of gestation. The transvaginal ultrasound examination demonstrated a monochorionic diamniotic pregnancy. She and her husband were healthy, with no family history of trisomy 21 or other congenital diseases. The ultrasound examination of nuchal translucency thickness was discordant in twins at 13 weeks (twin A, NT 1.4 mm with CRL being 65 mm; twin B, NT 7.8 mm with CRL being 69 mm). At 17+ 4 weeks, twin A was normal, but ventricular septal defect and the hypoplastic left heart was detected in twin B. The deepest vertical pocket was 18 mm in twin A (oligohydramnios) and 102 mm in Twin B (polyhydramnios). The bladder in twin A was absent. Ultrasound findings indicated TTTS Stage II. Amniocentesis was performed for the two fetuses. The karyotyping results revealed 46, XX in twin A but 46,XX,+ 21,der (21;21)(q10;q10) in twin B. For twin B, the parents opted for selective fetal termination by radiofrequency ablation. The procedure was uneventful. At 40+ 5 weeks, twin A was born with a birth weight of 4120 g by vaginal delivery.

Conclusions: The early detection of discordant karyotype and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is beneficial to the early intervention. In monozygotic twins with a discordant anomaly, the discordant karyotype should be considered.

Dingya Cao, imei Sun, an Li, hihua Li, eiqiang Liu, in Chen

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