Yellow fever prevention and control: assessment of surveillance activities in a previously unaffected area in Brazil.
Following the reemergence of yellow fever in 2014/2015, Brazil recorded its largest yellow fever epidemic in recent decades, mainly affecting the country's Southeast region. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by sylvatic mosquitos (Haemagogus; Sabethes). In the urban cycle, eradicated in Brazil since 1942, the virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Nonhuman primates are the principal hosts of the virus and constitute "sentinels" in yellow fever surveillance. This article describes the control and prevention activities launched during the yellow fever epidemic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and the implementation of vaccination, through an ecological study with a spatial approach. The study revealed the lack of detection of epizootics in nonhuman primates by surveillance services in Espírito Santo, with simultaneous detection in humans. The study presented the evolution of vaccination activities, reaching 85% overall coverage for the state in six months, varying widely, from 59% to 122%, between municipalities (counties). Importantly, 55% of the municipalities with timely immunization, considering the interval adopted for this study, did not present human cases. The intensification of surveillance activities, communication between areas, and multidisciplinary teams in managing the epidemic optimized the detection and diagnosis of human cases and allowed control of the epidemic. The study identifies progress and points to some late measures and gaps in surveillance that require improvements.