Condition 101 About Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum

What is the definition of Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

A teratoma is a type of cancer that contains one or more of the three layers of cells found in a developing baby (embryo). These cells are called germ cells. A teratoma is one type of germ cell tumor.

The mediastinum is located inside the front of the chest in the area that separates the lungs. The heart, large blood vessels, windpipe, thymus gland, and esophagus are found there.

What are the alternative names for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

Dermoid cyst - malignant; Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor - teratoma; Immature teratoma; GCTs - teratoma; Teratoma - extragonadal

What are the causes for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

Malignant mediastinal teratoma occurs most often in young men in their 20s or 30s. Most malignant teratomas can spread throughout the body, and have spread by the time of diagnosis.

Blood cancers are often associated with this tumor, including:

  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (group of bone marrow disorders)

What are the symptoms for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

Symptoms may include:

  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Limited ability to tolerate exercise
  • Shortness of breath

What are the current treatments for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

Chemotherapy is used to treat the tumor. A combination of medicines (usually cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) is commonly used.

After chemotherapy is complete, CT scans are taken again to see if any of the tumor remains. Surgery may be recommended if there is a risk that the cancer will grow back in that area or if any cancer has been left behind.

What are the support groups for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

There are many support groups available for people with cancer. Contact the American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

The outlook depends on the tumor size and location and the age of the patient.

What are the possible complications for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

The cancer can spread throughout the body and there may be complications of surgery or related to chemotherapy.

When should I contact a medical professional for Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum?

Call your provider if you have symptoms of malignant teratoma.

Teratoma
Malignant

REFERENCES

Cheng G-S, Varghese TK, Park DR. Mediastinal tumors and cysts. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83.

Putnam JB. Lung, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 57.

Latest Advances On Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum

  • Condition: Synchronous Retroperitoneal Tumor and Ovarian Mature Teratoma
  • Journal: Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • Treatment Used: Laparoscopic Surgery
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This study reports of a 72 year old woman with retroperitoneal and ovarian tumors who was treated with laparoscopic surgery.
  • Condition: Refractory anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis
  • Journal: The Journal of international medical research
  • Treatment Used: Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy and Intrathecal Injection of Methotrexate and Dexamethasone
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes a patient with refractory anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

Clinical Trials For Malignant Teratoma of the Mediastinum

Clinical Trial
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Phase: Phase 1
  • Intervention Type: Biological
  • Participants: 20
  • Start Date: July 2020
Fecal Microbiota Transplant as a Treatment for Severe Motility Disorder