MediFind
Condition

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Condition 101

What is the definition of Acute Coronary Syndrome?

Acute coronary syndrome is a term for a group of conditions that suddenly stop or severely reduce blood from flowing to the heart. When blood cannot flow to the heart, the heart muscle can become damaged. Heart attack and unstable angina are both acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

What are the alternative names for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

Heart attack - ACS; Myocardial infarction - ACS; MI - ACS; Acute MI - ACS; ST elevation myocardial infarction - ACS; Non ST-elevation myocardial infarction - ACS; Unstable angina - ACS; Accelerating angina - ACS; Angina - unstable-ACS; Progressive angina

What are the causes for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

A fatty substance called plaque can build up in the arteries that bring oxygen-rich blood to your heart. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, fat, cells, and other substances.

Plaque can block blood flow in 2 ways:

  • It can cause an artery to become so narrow over time that it becomes blocked enough to cause symptoms.
  • The plaque tears suddenly and a blood clot forms around it, severely narrowing or blocking the artery.

Many risk factors for heart disease may lead to an ACS.

What are the symptoms for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

The most common symptom of ACS is chest pain. The chest pain may come on quickly, come and go, or get worse with rest. Other symptoms can include:

  • Pain in the shoulder, arm, neck, jaw, back, or belly area
  • Discomfort that feels like tightness, squeezing, crushing, burning, choking, or aching
  • Discomfort that occurs at rest and does not easily go away when you take medicine
  • Shortness of breath
  • Anxiety
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat

Women and older people often experience these other symptoms, although chest pain is common for them as well.

What are the current treatments for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

Your provider may use medicines, surgery, or other procedures to treat your symptoms and restore blood flow to your heart. Your treatment depends on your condition and the amount of blockage in your arteries. Your treatment may include:

  • Medicine -- Your provider may give you one or more types of medicine, including aspirin, beta blockers, statins, blood thinners, clot dissolving drugs, Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or nitroglycerin. These medicines may help prevent or break up a blood clot, treat high blood pressure or angina, relieve chest pain, and stabilize your heart.
  • Angioplasty -- This procedure opens the clogged artery using a long, thin tube called a catheter. The tube is placed in the artery and the provider inserts a small deflated balloon. The balloon is inflated inside the artery to open it up. Your doctor may insert a wire tube, called a stent, to keep the artery open.
  • Bypass surgery -- This is surgery to route the blood around the artery that is blocked.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

How well you do after an ACS depends on:

  • How quickly you get treated
  • The number of arteries that are blocked and how bad the blockage is
  • Whether or not your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent and location of the damage, and where the damage is

In general, the quicker your artery gets unblocked, the less damage you will have to your heart. People tend to do best when the blocked artery is opened within a few hours from the time symptoms start.

What are the possible complications for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

In some cases, ACS can lead to other health problems including:

  • Abnormal heart rhythms
  • Death
  • Heart attack
  • Heart failure, which happens when the heart cannot pump enough blood
  • Rupture of part of the heart muscle causing tamponade or severe valve leakage
  • Stroke

When should I contact a medical professional for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

An ACS is a medical emergency. If you have symptoms, call 911 or your local emergency number quickly.

DO NOT:

  • Try to drive yourself to the hospital.
  • WAIT -- If you are having a heart attack, you are at greatest risk for sudden death in the early hours.

How do I prevent Acute Coronary Syndrome?

There is a lot you can do to help prevent ACS.

  • Eat a heart-healthy diet. Have plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean meats. Try to limit foods high in cholesterol and saturated fats, since too much of these substances can clog your arteries.
  • Get exercise. Aim to get at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week.
  • Lose weight, if you are overweight.
  • Quit smoking. Smoking can damage your heart. Ask your doctor if you need help quitting.
  • Get preventive health screenings. You should see your doctor for regular cholesterol and blood pressure tests and learn how to keep your numbers in check.
  • Manage health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes.

REFERENCES

Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(24):e139-e228. PMID: 25260718 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25260718.

Bohula EA, Morrow DA. ST-elevation myocardial infarction: management. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 59.

Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S76-S99. PMID: 24222015 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222015.

Giugliano RP, Braunwald E. Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 60.

O'Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2013;127(4):529-555. PMID: 23247303 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247303.

Scirica BM, Libby P, Morrow DA. ST-elevation myocardial infarction: pathophysiology and clinical evolution. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 58.

Smith SC Jr, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO, et al. AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2011;124(22):2458-2473. PMID: 22052934 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052934.

Latest Research

Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • Journal: Lipids in health and disease
  • Treatment Used: High-Intensity vs Standard Statin Therapy
  • Number of Patients: 26497
  • Published —
This study compared high-intensity versus standard statin therapy (medications used to treat high cholesterol) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (sudden reduced blood flow to the heart).
Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • Journal: Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • Treatment Used: Secondary Prevention Combination Therapy with Beta-Blocker and Statin
  • Number of Patients: 636
  • Published —
This study compared the effects of a combination of beta-blocker and statin with one-drug therapies in the occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Patients Over 80 Years of Age with Coronary Artery Disease
  • Journal: Clinical interventions in aging
  • Treatment Used: Noncardiac Surgery
  • Number of Patients: 547
  • Published —
The study researched the incidence of perioperative cardiac complications in patients older than 80 with coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery.
Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Atrial Fibrillation
  • Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association
  • Treatment Used: Double Antithrombotic Therapy
  • Number of Patients: 10969
  • Published —
In this study, researchers evaluated the safety and effectiveness of double antithrombotic therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention.

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trial
Drug
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Study Type: Drug
  • Participants: 30
  • Start Date: August 1, 2020
Repurposing Colchicine to Improve Vascular Function in Hypertension
Clinical Trial
Other
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Study Type: Other
  • Participants: 11700
  • Start Date: July 29, 2020
Rapid Acute Coronary Syndrome Exclusion Using the Beckman Coulter Access High-sensitivity I Troponin
Clinical Trial
Device
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Study Type: Device
  • Participants: 100
  • Start Date: July 9, 2020
Cardiovascular Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patients With Acute Stroke and Obstructive Sleep Apnea