An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus in the area of the anus and rectum.
Anal abscess; Rectal abscess; Perirectal abscess; Perianal abscess; Gland abscess; Abscess - anorectal
Common causes of anorectal abscess include:
Deep rectal abscesses may be caused by intestinal disorders such as Crohn disease or diverticulitis.
The following factors increase the risk for an anorectal abscess:
The condition affects men more than women. The condition may occur in infants and toddlers who are still in diapers and who have a history of anal fissures.
Common symptoms are swelling around the anus and a constant, throbbing pain with swelling. Pain may be severe with bowel movements, coughing and sitting.
Other symptoms may include:
In infants, the abscess often appears as a swollen, red, tender lump at the edge of the anus. The infant may be fussy and irritable from discomfort. There are usually no other symptoms.
The problem rarely goes away on its own. Antibiotics alone usually cannot treat an abscess.
Treatment involves surgery to open and drain the abscess.
Drained abscesses are usually left open and no stitches are needed.
The surgeon may prescribe painkillers and antibiotics.
Avoiding constipation will help decrease pain. You may need stool softeners. Drinking fluids and eating foods with lots of fiber can also help.
With prompt treatment, people with this condition usually do well. Infants and toddlers usually recover quickly.
Complications can occur when treatment is delayed.
Complications of anorectal abscess may include:
Call your health care provider if you:
Prevention or prompt treatment of STDs may prevent an anorectal abscess from forming. Use condoms during intercourse, including anal sex, to prevent such infections.
In infants and toddlers, frequent diaper changes and proper cleaning during diaper changes can help prevent both anal fissures and abscesses.
Coates WC. Anorectal procedures. In: Roberts JR, Custalow CB, Thomsen TW, eds. Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 45.
Merchea A, Larson DW. Anus. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 52.