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Condition

Anorexia

Condition 101

What is the definition of Anorexia?

Anorexia is an eating disorder that causes people lose more weight than is considered healthy for their age and height.

People with this disorder may have an intense fear of weight gain, even when they are underweight. They may diet or exercise too much or use other ways to lose weight.

What are the alternative names for Anorexia?

Eating disorder - anorexia nervosa

What are the causes for Anorexia?

The exact causes of anorexia are not known. Many factors may be involved. Genes and hormones may play a role. Social attitudes that promote very thin body types may also be involved.

Risk factors for anorexia include:

  • Being more worried about, or paying more attention to, weight and shape
  • Having an anxiety disorder as a child
  • Having a negative self-image
  • Having eating problems during infancy or early childhood
  • Having certain social or cultural ideas about health and beauty
  • Trying to be perfect or overly focused on rules

Anorexia often begins during the pre-teen or teen years or young adulthood. It is more common in females, but may also be seen in males.

What are the symptoms for Anorexia?

A person with anorexia usually:

  • Has an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even when underweight.
  • Refuses to keep weight at what is considered normal for their age and height (15% or more below the normal weight).
  • Has a body image that is very distorted, be very focused on body weight or shape, and refuse to admit the danger of weight loss.

People with anorexia may severely limit the amount of food they eat. Or they eat and then make themselves throw up. Other behaviors include:

  • Cutting food into small pieces or moving them around the plate instead of eating
  • Exercising all the time, even when the weather is bad, they are hurt, or their schedule is busy
  • Going to the bathroom right after meals
  • Refusing to eat around other people
  • Using pills to make themselves urinate (water pills, or diuretics), have a bowel movement (enemas and laxatives), or decrease their appetite (diet pills)

Other symptoms of anorexia may include:

  • Blotchy or yellow skin that is dry and covered with fine hair
  • Confused or slow thinking, along with poor memory or judgment
  • Depression
  • Dry mouth
  • Extreme sensitivity to cold (wearing several layers of clothing to stay warm)
  • Thinning of the bones (osteoporosis)
  • Wasting away of muscle and loss of body fat

What are the current treatments for Anorexia?

The biggest challenge in treating anorexia nervosa is helping the person recognize that they have an illness. Most people with anorexia deny that they have an eating disorder. They often seek treatment only when their condition is serious.

Goals of treatment are to restore normal body weight and eating habits. A weight gain of 1 to 3 pounds (lb) or 0.5 to 1.5 kilograms (kg) per week is considered a safe goal.

Different programs have been designed to treat anorexia. These may include any of the following measures:

  • Increasing social activity
  • Reducing the amount of physical activity
  • Using schedules for eating

To start, a short hospital stay may be recommended. This is followed by a day treatment program.

A longer hospital stay may be needed if:

  • The person has lost a lot of weight (being below 70% of their ideal body weight for their age and height). For severe and life-threatening malnutrition, the person may need to be fed through a vein or stomach tube.
  • Weight loss continues, even with treatment
  • Medical complications, such as heart problems, confusion, or low potassium levels develop
  • The person has severe depression or thinks about committing suicide

Care providers who are usually involved in these programs include:

  • Nurse practitioners
  • Physicians
  • Physician assistants
  • Dietitians
  • Mental health care providers

Treatment is often very difficult. People and their families must work hard. Many therapies may be tried until the disorder is under control.

People may drop out of programs if they have unrealistic hopes of being "cured" with therapy alone.

Different kinds of talk therapy are used to treat people with anorexia:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (a type of talk therapy), group therapy, and family therapy have all been successful.
  • Goal of therapy is to change person's thoughts or behavior to encourage them to eat in a healthier way. This kind of therapy is more useful for treating younger people who have not had anorexia for a long time.
  • If the person is young, therapy may involve the whole family. The family is seen as a part of the solution, instead of the cause of the eating disorder.
  • Support groups may also be a part of treatment. In support groups, patients and families meet and share what they have been through.

Medicines such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers may help some people when given as part of a complete treatment program. These medicines can help treat depression or anxiety. Although medicines may help, none has been proven to decrease the desire to lose weight.

What are the support groups for Anorexia?

The stress of illness can be eased by joining a support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Anorexia?

Anorexia is a serious condition that can be life threatening. Treatment programs can help people with the condition return to a normal weight. But it is common for the disease to return.

Women who develop this eating disorder at an early age have a better chance of recovering completely. Most people with anorexia will continue to prefer a lower body weight and be very focused on food and calories.

Weight management may be hard. Long-term treatment may be needed to stay at a healthy weight.

What are the possible complications for Anorexia?

Anorexia can be dangerous. It may lead to serious health problems over time, including:

  • Bone weakening
  • Decrease in white blood cells, which leads to increased risk of infection
  • A low potassium level in the blood, which may cause dangerous heart rhythms
  • Severe lack of water and fluids in the body (dehydration)
  • Lack of protein, vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients in the body (malnutrition)
  • Seizures due to fluid or sodium loss from repeated diarrhea or vomiting
  • Thyroid gland problems
  • Tooth decay

When should I contact a medical professional for Anorexia?

Talk to your health care provider if someone you care about is:

  • Too focused on weight
  • Over-exercising
  • Limiting the food he or she eats
  • Very underweight

Getting medical help right away can make an eating disorder less severe.

REFERENCES

American Psychiatric Association. Feeding and eating disorders. In: American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;329-345.

Kreipe RE. Eating disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 28.

Lock J, La Via MC; American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with eating disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;54(5):412-425. PMID 25901778 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25901778.

Tanofsky-Kraff M. Eating disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 219.

Thomas JJ, Mickley DW, Derenne JL, Klibanski A, Murray HB, Eddy KT. Eating disorders: evaluation and management. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 37.

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Latest Research

Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Anorexia Nervosa
  • Journal: Issues in mental health nursing
  • Treatment Used: Ear Acupuncture
  • Number of Patients: 25
  • Published —
This study discusses in-patients who were treated for anorexia nervosa in a highly specialized clinic for eating disturbances in Sweden experienced the treatment program.
Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Exertional Dyspnea, Myalgia, Petechiae of the Lower Extremities, and Pronounced Gingivitis
  • Journal: Der Internist
  • Treatment Used: Ascorbic Acid
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes a patient with dyspnea, myalgia, petechiae, and gingivitis that underwent multiple tests to uncover the cause.
Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Depression and Anorexia Nervosa
  • Journal: The International journal of eating disorders
  • Treatment Used: Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Number of Patients: 30
  • Published —
The study researched the use of electroconvulsive therapy for treating depression and anorexia nervosa.
Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Anorexia Nervosa
  • Journal: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
  • Treatment Used: Multifamily Therapy
  • Number of Patients: 6
  • Published —
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-family therapy in treating anorexia in children and adolescents.

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trial
Drug
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Study Type: Drug
  • Participants: 66
  • Start Date: August 28, 2020
Transdermal Estrogen for the Treatment of Bone Loss in Women With Anorexia Nervosa
Clinical Trial
Other
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Study Type: Other
  • Participants: 66
  • Start Date: June 25, 2020
Exploration by UHF MRI of Hypothalamic Networks Associated to Feeding in Obesity and Anorexia
Clinical Trial
Other
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Study Type: Other
  • Participants: 16000
  • Start Date: June 12, 2020
Eating Disorders Genetics Initiative (EDGI)
Clinical Trial
Behavioral
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Study Type: Behavioral
  • Participants: 50
  • Start Date: June 8, 2020
Emotion Coaching Skills as an Augmentation to Family Based Treatment for Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study