Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response due to the aspergillus fungus.
Aspergillosis is caused by a fungus called aspergillus. The fungus is often found growing on dead leaves, stored grain, compost piles, or in other decaying vegetation. It can also be found on marijuana leaves.
Although most people are often exposed to aspergillus, infections caused by the fungus rarely occur in people who have a healthy immune system.
There are several forms of aspergillosis:
Symptoms depend on the type of infection.
Symptoms of allergic pulmonary aspergillosis may include:
Other symptoms depend on the part of the body affected, and may include:
A fungus ball is usually not treated with antifungal medicines unless there is bleeding into the lung tissue. In such a case, surgery and medicines are needed.
Invasive aspergillosis is treated with several weeks of an antifungal medicine. It can be given by mouth or IV (into a vein). Endocarditis caused by aspergillus is treated by surgically replacing the infected heart valves. Long-term antifungal drugs are also needed.
Allergic aspergillosis is treated with drugs that suppress the immune system (immunosuppressive drugs), such as prednisone.
With treatment, people with allergic aspergillosis usually get better over time. It is common for the disease to come back (relapse) and need repeat treatment.
If invasive aspergillosis does not get better with drug treatment, it eventually leads to death. The outlook for invasive aspergillosis also depends on the person's underlying disease and immune system health.
Health problems from the disease or treatment include:
Call your provider if you develop symptoms of aspergillosis or if you have a weakened immune system and develop a fever.
Precautions should be taken when using medicines that suppress the immune system.
Patterson TF. Aspergillus species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 259.
Walsh TJ. Aspergillosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 339.